This article examines the factors which facilitate the expansion of father’s right to be a caregiver for his children through the lenses of problems, challenges and citizens’ attitudes in two distinct cases of child care policy development: Sweden, as a role model and a pioneer for expanding father’s right to childcare, on the one hand, and Lithuanian, as a new EU member with less developed father’s right to child care, on the other. The study employs both qualitative (expert interviews) and quantitative (nation-wide survey) data to reach the intended goal. 
The findings confirm that fatherhood is culturally and socially constructed norm that needs to be transformed by active state’s involvement in shaping or reshaping parental leave policies so as to entail the requirement for fathers to become carers. Additionally, it shows that family policy reforms may not always produce intended outcomes and need to be backed up by the complementarities of other policies. 
Key words: family policy, parental leave, child care, paternity leave, Lithuania, Sweden, welfare state 

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Chair & Discussant:  Livia Oláh, Stockholm University